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Paternity test: new weapon in conflicting divorces
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  • 06/06/2022
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Paternity test: new weapon in conflicting divorces

En procesos conflictivos de separación o divorcio, por los derechos de visita y custodia de los hijos, por la pensión alimenticia, cuando hay sospechas sobre la infidelidad del cónyuge… Los test de paternidad se han multiplicado en los últimos años por ser una prueba sencilla, fiable y no demasiado cara (entre 150 y 500 euros, según la complejidad del caso), a tenor de los datos de laboratorios expertos en este tipo de test. Pero para que se autorice, el juez debe ver indicios probatorios con visos de credibilidad y, para que tenga validez legal, debe realizarse en un laboratorio autorizado. En este artículo explicamos en qué consiste la prueba de paternidad, si es posible negarse a hacerla y en qué situaciones no es válida.

Paternity test: a simple, but decisive test

Every year more than 2,000 defenders of paternity are brought in Spain and, in many cases, tests are carried out with the objective of obtaining the judicial declaration of an undetermined or different affiliation than the previously determined.In a quarter of the cases (26 % of the assumptions studied) the investigated father is not the biological.

Paternity tests are used in the claim or challenge procedures of paternity in civil procedure, "regardless of divorce," Clara Belzuz, an expert in family law (Belzuz Abogados) clarifies.It is usually requested when there are doubts about paternity, because the test serves to know "if there is any biological relationship of affiliation between the subjects participating in it," explains Dr. Belén Lledó, scientific director of the Bernabeu Biotech Institute.

In the case of a divorce, the objective of the use of paternity tests is to rule out or confirm the biological paternity of the child who is legally son of the couple.In the case of confirmation, the divorce process follows the normal course.However, "in the case of discarding paternity, a filiation procedure begins with the objective that the so far father is legally disconnected from the child and therefore does not possess the legal obligations on him," says Belén Lledó.

Esto tiene consecuencias de gran calado. En algunos casos de divorcio conflictivos y traumáticos, los test de paternidad se emplean como un arma, "pues el reconocimiento (o no) de una paternidad puede llevar aparejado el ejercicio de acciones complementarias", como la negativa (u obligación) a pasar una pensión de alimentos o incluso la reclamación de una indemnización por daños morales al excónyuge. A veces, hay padres que luchan por la custodia compartida con su ex y se encuentran con que "su" hijo (o uno de ellos) no lo es. Al no serlo, no podrá tener derecho alguno sobre él.

Test de paternidad: nueva arma en divorcios conflictivos

On other occasions, an ex -husband with suspicions requests the test so as not to improperly pay the food pension or deal with other obligations that do not correspond to it.If it turns out to be the father, what has already been paid for justice as a consumable element that the mother does not have to return.But, from the moment in which the "father" is issued, he must not run more with these expenses.

Can I refuse to do a paternity test?

Can any of the parties ask for a paternity test?Can one of the ex -gauges be denied to do it?Both questions have an affirmative answer, because "you can request it any of the parties and you can also refuse to ask it," says Belzuz.In addition, a demand for paternity, to be admitted, will have to present "certain evidence that convinces the judge that he has credibility visions."

Ante la negativa a someterse a una prueba, ¿no hay nada que hacer? Sí. Si el juez deniega los argumentos de quien no desea hacérsela, ordenará la práctica del test, fijando un día y hora para realizarlo en un laboratorio. Si no se acude, lo más probable es que su situación procesal se agrave de forma sustancial. Porque, además, la Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil prevé que, ante la negativa injustificada a someterse a la prueba biológica de paternidad o maternidad, el juzgador pueda declarar la filiación reclamada. Eso sí, esta decisión no se toma a la ligera. Es "imprescindible, siempre, que haya otros indicios complementarios", dice.

What validity does the paternity test have?

Paternity tests have legal validity and can be used as a test in divorce.Although its main objective is not that of divorce, in one of these judicial processes, "if the laboratory has judicial approval, the result of the test is a determining evidence," says Clara Belzuz.

In order for a laboratory to be authorized, and its paternity evidence has legal validity, it must have accredited professionals as judicial expertDoctor of the Bernabeu Biotech Institute.

How a paternity test is performed

La realización de los test de paternidad, cuyo precio oscila entre 150 y 500 euros según la complejidad y garantías, "es muy sencilla", reconoce la doctora Lledó. Se necesita obtener una muestra biológica de los individuos implicados en la prueba, a partir de la que se obtendrá el ADN con el que llevar a cabo el análisis en el laboratorio. ¿Cómo se hace?

The sample can be obtained with a simple cotton stick with which a saliva sample is taken that must be sent to the laboratory.Only biological samples of the child and the alleged father are needed;A biological sample of the mother is not essential.

In the case of its center, Lledó explains that the client can move to the laboratory to take the saliva sample (DNA) or request a kit by email or by phone.In this case, they reach the direction indicated by two sticks to rub with them the internal carrillo of the two people to compare.After this, they must imply it to the laboratory.The test is also increasingly fast and the results are obtained "within five and seven days," said Lledó.

Homemade paternity test?It has no judicial validity

There are companies that sell homemade tests.Are they equally reliable?In this type of test the samples are taken by the people who participate in the test and must send them to the laboratory to carry out the analysis.In this case, it is not necessary.

Paternity tests carried out through homemade tests do not have legal validity.In order for a evidence to have judicial validity, that is, it is accepted by a judge in a process of affiliation or divorce, it is necessary to go to an accredited laboratory so that the corresponding professionals take the samples, certify the identity of the participants in the test andKeep the custody of the samples at all times.

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Divorce Children Paternity Pension

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